Open Access Research Article

The Effectiveness of Soil and Water Conservation as Climate Smart Agricultural Practice and Its Contribution to Smallholder Farmers’ Livelihoods. The Case of Bambasi District Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, Northwest of Ethiopia

Dereje Mosissa1*, Ashafi Mohammed2 and Yemiru Tesfaye2

1Ethiopian Biodiversity Institute Assosa Biodiversity Center, Assosa, Ethiopia

2Hawassa University, Wondo Genet Collage of Forestry and Natural Rsources, Ethiopia

Corresponding Author

Received Date: June 10, 2019;  Published Date: June 26, 2019


This study is an investigation of effectiveness of soil and water conservation practices as climate smart agriculture and its’ contribution to the livelihoods of smallholder’s farmers in Bambasi District of Northwestern Ethiopia. It was hypothesized that there is no relationship between factors contributing to the adoption of SWC technologies and a number of SWC technologies adopted, as well as there is no relationship between the number of SWC technologies used by farmers and access to the livelihood assets. In order to address the objectives, both primary and secondary data were used for the study. The study applied a non-experimental design (explanatory) to collect primary data from a sample of 270 households drawn from the three Kebeles. Stratified random sampling technique was also used along with the simple random sampling technique in each stratum. The data collected was then analyzed by inferential statistics such as chi-square by using STATA 14.2 and Microsoft office Excel. Perceptions The study found out that most adopted SWC technologies are crop rotation, level bund, agricultural inputs and Fanya Juu terraces, of which few of them were considered as effective while the main factors influencing their adoption are farm size, having livestock, crop yield, farmers’ perception of the soil erosion problem, access to extension services and experience, availability of inputs support and steep slope. It was found that 9.3% of respondents adopt at least one technique while 37.8% use the four identified SWC technologies. The results revealed that respondents have access to livelihood assets (natural, human, social, physical and financial assets) found in the area of study. The statistical test showed that farm size, crop yield, perception of soil erosion, availability of inputs supports, the availability of training and access on it as well as farmers’ experience, Natural and social assets and steep slope have a connection with adoption of SWC technologies, while the others not. The study concluded that most of the participants were willing to maintain soil as a valuable resource and apply SWC technologies for maximizing their benefits but expressed the need for the continuing support of the implementation. Further, it also brings to a close that conservation efforts ought to focus on areas where expected benefits are higher, especially on the steeper slopes, in order to encourage the use of the SWC technologies.

Keywords: Adaptation; Livelihood assets; Agricultural technology; Small holders; Soil erosion

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