Optimization and Microstructural Evaluation of Processing Parameters on the Density and Surface Hardness of Dual Phase Steel
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mechatronics, and Industrial Design, Tshwane University of Technology Pretoria, South Africa.
23950 Ashburnham Drive #20, TX 77082 Houston, Texas
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mechatronics, and Industrial Design, Tshwane University of Technology Pretoria, South Africa.
4Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mechatronics, and Industrial Design, Tshwane University of Technology Pretoria, South Africa.
5Department of Chemical, Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, P.M.B. X680, Pretoria, South Africa
6Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Platteville, Wisconsin, USA
7University of Idaho, Kimberly research and extension center, USA
Received Date:March 16, 2021; Published Date: April 05, 2021
The body frame of the automobile is an essential and critical component of a car. This part when subjected to extreme impact, could lead to mechanical failure, which could endanger human life. The effectiveness of the material in safeguarding human life can be influenced by both the selection of materials and the manufacturing process. Dual Phase (DP) steel of 600 grades was developed from low carbon steel (0.13wt) at different temperatures and holding time using bitumen as the quenching medium. The material was developed with improved mechanical properties to withstand impact due to accidents. The influence of processing parameters on the surface hardness and density was analyzed using response surface methodology to develop a prediction model.
The relationship existing between density and the hardness of Dual Phase steel was established in this study. It was discovered that the increase in density resulted in an improvement of the surface hardness as a result of the reduction in pores. The SEM micrographs revealed the extent of the dispersion of the ferrite and martensite as a function of the holding time. To ascertain the experimental outcome, a model on a statistical four-level and two factorial design method was carried out. Based on the statistical analysis, surface hardness (SH) shows a correlation coefficient of R2= 0.9522 while Density gave R2= 0.9859, P-values obtained were less than 0.1 and there is only a 0.01% chance that the F-values obtained could occur due to noise.
Keywords:Microstructure; Dual Phases Steel; Mechanical Properties; Low carbon steel.