Open Access Research Article

Gender Based Disparities Among Wide Range of Cardiac Failure Patients Reporting at Benazir Bhutto Hospital Rawalpindi During 2019-2020

Imran Saeed Ali1, Rizwana Shahid2* and Tahira Sadiq3

1Professor of Cardiology, PAF Hospital, Pakistan

2Assistant Professor Community Medicine, Rawalpindi Medical University, Pakistan

3Assistant Professor of cardiology, PAF hospital Islamabad, Pakistan

Corresponding Author

Received Date: March 07, 2023;  Published Date: March 23, 2023

Objectives: To determine gender-based variations among cardiac failure patients visiting a tertiary care hospital of Rawalpindi during 2019- 2020.

Subjects & Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was done by enrolling 490 cardiac failure patients through consecutive non-probability sampling. Data was gathered from the patients and their attendants about demographics, clinical manifestations, comorbidities, test reports and healthcare outcomes. Patients were also categorized in accordance with New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 25.0 and Microsoft Excel 16.0. Gender-wise differences in mean age of the patients was confirmed by independent sample t-test while the disparities in comorbidities, risk factors, lab tests, cardiac associated biochemical parameters and healthcare outcome were statistically proved by chi-square test. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant.

Results: Of the total 490 heart failure patients, 292 and 198 were males and females respectively. Mean age of the patients was 53.2 ± 15.04 years; however, gender-wise difference in mean age was statistically insignificant (P>0.89). More males complained of chest pain (P<0.001). Around 41% of the patients were in class-I of NYHA heart failure classification. Gender-based difference in proximity to predisposing factors like diabetes, hypertension and smoking was statistically significant with P<0.05, P<0.001 and P<0.000 respectively. Relatively more females had pallor (P<0.005). despite the derangement of CK-MB and chest X-ray among 75% of the cases, gender-wised disparity was statistically insignificant (P>0.20). about 77% and 88.3% of the male and female patients subjected to cardiac Troponin-I testing had negative test report. Total 8 patients were succumbed to heart failure.

Conclusion: overall gender-related variations in heart failure cases was statistically insignificant.

Keywords:Cardiac failure; New York Heart Association; Biochemical parameters; CK-MB; Healthcare outcome

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