Open Access Review Article

Green Ammonia’s Role in Decarbonizing Many Sectors: Its Global Impact and Optimization Associated With Renewable Energy Ammonia: Production and Diversity of Applications

Gabriel Winter1*, Antonio Pulido1 and Lourdes Trujillo2

1Institute of Intelligent Systems and Numerical Applications in Engineering (SIANI), ULPGC, Spain

2Research Team in Economics of Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (EITT), ULPGC, Spain

Corresponding Author

Received Date: June 04, 2021;  Published Date: July 02, 2021


Hydrogen is the fuel of the future, but it presents serious storage and transportation problems, one of the many solutions is to convert it into ammonia. Which was already used in buses in Belgium at the Second World War (1943). Nowadays, it is emerging as a fuel for certain applications, thermal power plants and vessels for long haul. It is produced via the conventional Haber-Bosch process, which was invented a century ago based on the chemical reaction between hydrogen and nitrogen. This reaction is easily reversible. Green ammonia is produced using renewable energy to produce hydrogen from water electrolysis and nitrogen easily captured from the air. All the aforementioned processes can be linked because of the high degree of complementarity between them. In striving to produce a ‘complete installation’ with high performance, optimization and artificial intelligence tools are needed to effectively produce, store and consume electric energy, desalinated water, H2 , N2 , O2, and NH3. These facilities can be flexible, allowing a better use of the renewable energy fluctuating, contributing to its integration. The more chemical components to produce, use, store in the same facility and dispatch to the market, the more profitable it will be. It is vital to optimize from the sizing of all the components of the plant, to the decision-making of the quantities to be producing, storing and taking into account multiple technical restrictions, fluctuations in renewable energies production and prices in electricity market.

This article focused on reviewing the application of hydrogel for bone tissue engineering and regeneration. Furthermore, there some challenges about future research on the application of biomaterials for bone regeneration are described in the conclusion and perspectives part.

Keywords: Green ammonia; Hydrogen; Energy carrier; Renewable energy; Decarbonization; Sustainable; Optimal management

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