Biochemical variation and association of Maternal Lipid Profile with Body Mass Index during Pregnancy
Received Date: October 01, 2019 Published Date: November 12, 2019
Background and objectives: The alteration of lipid profiles of healthy gestating women occurs with multiple physiological changes which may have subsequent risk associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes affecting both maternal and fetal health. Therefore, the objective of this study was focused to examine serum lipid profile and its correlation with body mass index in pregnant women and healthy non-pregnant women at Terai in Province No.2 of Nepal.
Methods: Cluster random sampling was adopted for this case-control study which was carried out in Department of Biochemistry at Clinical Pathology Laboratory, Janaki Medical College Teaching Hospital, Tribhuvan University, Nepal. BMI was calculated and all the lipid measurements (TC, TG, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C) were performed on semi-automatic biochemical analyzer measured by standard clinical laboratory techniques. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20, associations were assessed by Chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA. P-value (p<0.05) was considered as statistically significant.
Results: BMI in pregnant women increases with the trimester of pregnancy and was statistically significant (F=50.14, p=0.000). The mean level with standard deviation for TC (215.33± 27.35,226.16±27.93,247.82±33.23;F=48.00,p=0.000),TG(107.85±31.11,142.51±25.66,157.32±41.80;F=42.05, p=0.000),LDL-C(148.67±27.24,154.43±29.61,174.93±31.50;F=35.11,p=0.000), HDL-C (45.53±14.64, 43.17±11.13 ,41.42±9.92;F=1.07, p=0.360), VLDL-C (21.57±6.22, 28.50±5.13, 31.46±8.36; F= 42.05, p =0.000) were in 1st,? 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy respectively. Also, there was positive correlation between BMI with TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C. It was found highly significant (r=0.226; p<0.01, r =0.318; p<0.01, r = 0.275; p<0.01, r=0.316; p<0.01) respectively. However, the relationship between BMI with HDL-C was negatively correlated and found to be significant (r= -0.114; p<0.01).
Conclusion: The BMI and serum concentrations of TC, TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C were found to be increased in pregnant women except for HDL-C with advancement of gestational trimesters. But, serum TG and VLDL-C was decreased in 1st trimester of pregnancy as compared with non-pregnant healthy women. The relationship between BMI and lipid profile was positively correlated and highly significant for all the blood lipid profile except for HDL-C. However, there was negative correlation between BMI and HDL-C and was found to be significant. Gynecologists should recommend blood lipid profile to be integrated as routine investigation during antenatal care visits to avoid future complications in both mother and fetus.
Keywords:Body mass index, Lipid profile, Pregnancy, Terai