Open Access Mini Review

Oral Microbiome and Response to Immunotherapy: Is It Time To Pay Attention?

Purushottam Lamichhane*

LECOM School of Dental Medicine, USA

Corresponding Author

Received Date: July 23, 2018;  Published Date: August 06, 2018


Microbiome studies have shown associations between the presence of certain bacteria in the gut and response to checkpoint inhibition (CPI) therapies in cancer patients. Studies looking at any such potential associations between oral microbiome and response to CPI therapies are lacking. Oral cavity is an important microbial habitat. Microbes present in the oral cavity influence not only the local and systemic immune homeostasis; but also the gastrointestinal microbial diversity. If associations exist between specific gut microbes and response to CPI therapies, it is reasonable to assume that such relationships exist between oral microbes and therapy response in cancer patients. Since the findings from such studies will have resounding implications on patient selection for therapies and prophylactic or therapeutic modulation of microbes for prevention or treatment of malignancies; it is crucial that dental and oral research community pays attention and joins this research effort to identify associations and elucidate mechanisms of oral microbial determinants of CPI therapy responses in cancer patients.

Keywords: Oral microbiome; Immunotherapy; Checkpoint inhibition; Resistance to therapy; Determinants of response; Biomarkers; Oral squamous cell carcinoma

Abbreviations: PD-1: Programmed Death Receptor 1; PD-L1: Programmed Death-Ligand 1; CTLA-4: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyteAssociated Protein 4; CPI: Checkpoint Inhibition; TME: Tumor Microenvironment; OSCC: Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma; HNSCC: Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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