Carcinoid Heart Metastasis with Pericardial Effusion. A Rare Presentation
Received Date:September 27, 2021; Published Date:October 20, 2021
Aims: Investigated risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in countries with high and low Happiness Index in 158 countries in 2004.
Methods: Mann-Whitney U-test and Linear Multiple Regression Analysis (LMA); GBD 2004; FAO 1990-2005 databases.
Results: In countries with a high Happiness Index - group 1 (62 ± 8 versus 23 ± 5), income was 4 times higher, quality of life, health care was 3 times higher, and life expectancy by 23 years (p ≤ 0.001). In the countries of group 1, the overall mortality and overall morbidity were 2 times lower (p ≤ 0.001). Cardiovascular diseases were 1.5 times higher (p ≤ 0.016), cerebrovascular events were 2 times higher in group 2 countries (p ≤ 0.001). In the 1st group of countries, the share of men (%) predictors of metabolic syndrome (MS) was on average 2 times higher than in the 2nd group of countries (p ≤ 0.009). The daily food consumption in the 1st group of countries was 2 times higher than in the 2nd group (p ≤ 0.001).
Conclusion: The index of happiness can be considered a subtle and sensitive tool for assessing not only social life, but also human health.
Keywords:Happiness Index 2012; NCD; MS; Alcoholic Beverages; Hypertension; Ischemic; Cerebrovascular Heart Disease; Alcoholism; Nutrition; Risk factors
Abbreviations:AB: Alcoholic Beverage; AP: Animal Products; BMI: Body Mass Index; BP: Blood Pressure; CAB: Alcoholic Beverage Consumption; CD: Communicable Maternal Perinatal Diseases; Cho: Blood Cholesterol; CL: Consumption Level of Selected Foods; CHD: Coronary Heart Disease; CV: Cereals and Vegetables; CVD: Cardiovascular Diseases; COPD: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; D: Disease; DALY: The Disability-Adjusted Life Year; DRD2 and DRD3: Genes Encode Type 2 and 3 Dopamine Receptors; EEI: Ecological Efficiency Index; FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; FS: Fruits and Sweeteners; ICD-10: Codes - Is the 10th Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases; GBD: Global Burden Diseases; GDP: Domestic Gross Product; Glu: Blood Glucose; HPI: Happiness Index; IHD: Index of Human Development; LE: Life Expectancy for Men and Women; LPA: Low Physical Activity; LMA: Linear Multiple Regression Analysis; M: Male; NS: Nutritional Structure; MSP: Metabolic Syndrome Predictors; NCD: Non-Communicable Diseases