Open Access Mini Review

Covid-19 Response: The Importance of Amino Acids, Trace Elements and Polyphenols for Immune Competence

Michael K McMullen*

Sarl Mcmullen, Limoux, France

Corresponding Author

Received Date:July 15, 2021;  Published Date:October 11, 2021


The Covid-19 pandemic is a challenge for both CAM practitioners and CAM users. An adequate immune response is required for both a Covid infection and a Covid vaccination. The adequacy of the immune response depends very much on an individual’s nutritional status. The body users a range of substances to defend itself that require dietary amino acids and trace elements. Free radicals are used to attack microorganisms and antioxidants are used to quelch the free radical activity. Additionally, white blood cells derive 50% of their ATP from glutaminolysis. Glutamine is depleted at high levels of physical activity, including sport, and following burns or operations. A diet low in protein leads to impaired immunocompetence. Unfortunately, a large number of the world population fails to meet the daily requirement of 1.5 to 2.2 g/kg of high-quality protein necessary for good health. This is true even for the elderly in high income countries. Similarly with the trace elements. Large numbers of people live in areas of the world where there are low levels of iodine and selenium in the soil. This results in low levels of these elements in foods procured locally. Other trace elements such as copper, iron and zink are difficult to absorb due to the presence of phytic and oxalic acids in vegetable foods. This is less of a problem for meat eaters as these minerals are found at high levels in meat. In contrast, for vegans and vegetarians whose primary source of protein is grains and pulses, the presence of phytic acid in these foods inhibit absorption of the copper, iron and zinc from plant sources. Women are particularly at risk as their reproductive system requires higher levels of protein, iron and iodine. Ensuring adequate nutrition is the priority for long term immunocompetence.

Keywords:Immunocompetence; COVID; Glutamine; Arginine; Cysteine; Taurine; Zinc; Iron; Iodine; Copper

Abbreviations:RNS: reactive nitrogen species; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SOD: superoxide dismutase

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