Involuntary Tobacco Smoking while Sailing across the Sea
Received Date: January 15, 2020; Published Date: January 24, 2020
Smoking is one of the most important factors for human health problems. Little is known about involuntary smoking effects in an outdoor sport environment, e.g. sailing. The aim of the study was to evaluate the extend of active and passive smoking during open air activities by measuring the sensitive markers of smoking namely acetonitrile, acrolein, and benzene levels in smokers and non-smokers during leisure sailing across the sea. Exhaled acetonitrile, acrolein and benzene were measured in 17 healthy male volunteers during sailboat cruises using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. The time schedule consisted of a baseline evaluation, standardized measurements taken on days 1 to 6 of the cruise and following return. Additionally, the sailing conditions (wind velocity, weather, sea conditions, and boat speed) and smoking habits were charted. Exhaled acetonitrile, acrolein, and benzene were strongly increased in smokers. Furthermore, in non-smokers acetonitrile and acrolein significantly increased indicating an unexpected substantial passive smoking effect. Environmental influencing factors, e.g. automobile exhaust or adhesives could be ruled out. During sailing across the sea, involuntary smoking effects are demonstrable in non-smokers. Sailors with smoking habits should be aware of causing a substantial involuntary smoking effect for their accompanying non-smoking sailors even in an outdoor environment. .
Keywords: PTR-MS; Non-smokers; Environmental tobacco smoke effect; Acetonitrile; Benzene; Acrolein; tobacco; Passive smoking; Sailing
Abbreviations: Ptr-Ms: Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry; VOC: Volatile Organic Compound; ETSE: Environmental Tobacco Smoke Effect, ETS: Environmental Tobacco Smoke