Study of Nutrition Status of Population in Georgia
Received Date: July 29, 2019; Published Date: November 21, 2019
Background: Until 2015, systematic statistical data on micronutrient deficiency was not available in Georgia, to provide developing national strategy. In the same year, the National Centre for Disease Control and Public Health of Georgia (NCDC) in collaboration with the USA CDC launched the project “Strengthening surveillance of micronutrient deficiency in Georgia”.
Methodology: Sentinel surveillance approach was used by selecting 8 sentinel sites from 4 regions, 2 sites in each region (1 pediatric and 1 antenatal clinic). Folate and iron deficiencies were studied in pregnant women (1st trimester) and iron deficiency was measured in children (12- 23 months old). Ferritin concentration in plasma with cut-off points of <12 μg/l was used for Iron deficiency measure in toddlers, and <15 μg/l in pregnant. <3.0 ng/ml was considered as a cut-off point of Folate deficiency in pregnant. For anemia detection for the both target groups (children U2; pregnant) has been used Hb cut-off points of <11 g/l. Hemoglobin was tested using HemoQue and Multi-analyzer techniques at the sentinel sites.
Findings: In 2016-2017, Blood hemoglobin was measured among 939 children 12 to 23 months of age. 34% were anemic. Furthermore, 478 were tested for iron deficiency and 84% of them were identified as iron deficient. Hemoglobin was tested among 2,790 pregnant women and 7.4 % of them were found anemic. Additionally, 483 of 2,790 pregnant women were tested for iron and folate deficiencies. 61% were iron deficient, and 26.4% tested positive for folate deficiency. Neural tube defects (NTDs) prevalence per 1000 live births registered in sentinel sites was high 2.7.
Conclusion: Our preliminary results show that anemia and iron deficiency are prevalent among both pregnant women and children of the specified age group in Georgia. Additionally, folate deficiency was quite common during the 1st trimester of pregnancy. Our findings will inform public health policy decision makers to take relevant decisions on required interventions, such as health education, distribution of relevant supplements, and food fortification.