Open Access Mini Review

Vaccination Contribution to World Health: History, Current and Future

Hanaa A El Shafeis1, Ebtsam M Esl Kadys2* and Soad A Salehs2

1Microbial Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

2Microbial Biotechnology Department, National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt

Corresponding Author

Received Date: December 15, 2020;  Published Date: January 20, 2021


Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding widespread immunity from infectious diseases. For many parts of the world, vaccination is largely responsible for eradicating and preventing infectious diseases. Efforts to vaccinate have met with some controversy on scientific, legal, political, medical, and religious grounds, but no major religions condemn vaccination, and some find it a duty because of the potential for saving lives. Early success brought widespread recognition, and programs for mass vaccination dramatically decreased the incidence of many diseases in various geographic regions. Vaccination programs are seen as a major contributor to a 20th-century decline in infectious diseases. Over recent years, the national coverage of vaccination has declined, emphasizing the need for continuous monitoring and assessment of vaccination programmers.

Any vaccine is not completely risk-free, although most risks are very limited in adverse reactions to the vaccine. Therefore, we are working to produce a vaccine with a sufficient level of safety and positivity in the capacity for the required immunity. The different vaccine industry depends on the type of vaccine and the method of vaccination. Diphtheria is mainly regulated by vaccination, and by high immunization coverage ensures adequate herd immunity. The initiation of diphtheria outbreaks represents insufficient coverage of the vaccine. This epidemic was likely the result of the reintroduction by contaminated migrants passing through mining districts and poor vaccination levels of previously eradicated diseases. Work is still going on in developing, evaluating and discovering new forms of vaccines, including DNA vaccines, and recombinant vector vaccines which are simple and economical vaccines with good and long-term immune effects.

Keywords: Vaccines; Outbreaks; Diphtheria; Avidity

Abbreviations: DT-Diphtheria toxin; DTo-Diphtheria toxoids; ADP-Adenosine diphosphate; NAD-Adenine dinucleotide, DtxR-Diphtheria toxin repressor gene; (DT): diphtheria and tetanus; DTaP-Diphtheria tetanus and acellular pertussis; Td-Tetanus and diphtheria; Tdap-Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis; (DAT)-Diphtheria antitoxin; DT(a)(w)P or TdaP-Acellular= a, wholecell= w; IPV-Polio virus; Abs-Antibodies; DTBS-Diphtheria toxin binding site; ELISA-Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; MIA-Multiplex immunoassay; CV-Strong variability; HPV-Hepatitis virus

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