Open Access Opinion

Plausible Pharmacological Interpretation of Hydroxychloroquine Ineffectiveness for Treatment of COVID-19 in Hospitalized Patients

Amani E. Khalifa1* and Asser I. Ghoneim2

1 Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology. Former Vice-Dean/Acting Dean, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt and Currently, the Advisor to the President for the New Non-Profit Ain Shams University Project..

2 Professor of Pharmacology & Toxicology. Vice-Dean (Community) & Former Acting-Dean, Faculty of Pharmacy, Damanhour University, Damanhour, Egypt.

Corresponding Author

Received Date:April 7, 2021;  Published Date: May 28,2021


The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 as an atypical type of viral pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV 2). Many potential treatments and preventive options are currently being investigated against this disease. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and its related parent compound; chloroquine (CQ), were among the monotherapies that were investigated early during this pandemic. Recently, the COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel of the NIH recommended against the use of chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients based on the results of the many relevant clinical trials conducted. This article provides plausible interpretation of their ineffectiveness from a pharmacological point of view, based on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic profile of these drugs

Keywords: Chloroquine; COVID-19; Hydroxychloroquine; Perspective; Pharmacokinetics; Pharmacodynamics.

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