Open Access Review Article

The Link Between Brain and Auditory System and Possible Role of Vestibular System in Hearing System as a Second Middle Ear and the Role of Melanocytes and/or Neuromelanin in this Process

Alireza Bina*

Starwood Audiology, USA

Corresponding Author

Received Date: March 10, 2021;  Published Date: March 23, 2021

Backward Auditory input pathways of Sound hypothesis describes that sound might be transferred from our Skin and eyes to the Inner Ear and the External Auditory Canal is not the only input of Sound, The Cochlea receives the sound from two separate directions Forward Auditory input pathway which are the Signals reach out to the cochlea from the External ear canal and the second direction Backward Auditory input pathways which are the signals transfer from our Skin and eyes and approach to the cochlea. The cochlea receives the sound from both directions and organizes and transfers them to the Brain for the ultimate processing.

We deal with this subject by explaining

A: General features of Melanocytes, Melanin and Neuromelanin

B: Those parts of the Brain contain Neuromelanin and their link with Vestibular system

C: Vestibular System, Third Window Disorders and Third Window Mobile Hypothesis vs second middle ear disorders hypothesis

D: Possible implications of Vestibular system and Neuromelanin/Melanin in Backward Auditory Input pathways of sound

Keywords:Otosclerosis; Meniere’s syndrome; Forward and backward auditory input pathways; Melanin; Neuromelanin; Melanocytes; Third window disorders; Vestibular System; Sensorineural hearing loss; Cochlea; Conductive hearing loss; Semicircular canals; Utricle; Saccule; Round Window; Oval Window

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