Open Access Research Article

The Demographic Features of Concomitant Facial Fractures with Closed Head Injuries in Maricopa Arizona

Malcolm Harris1*, Tara Brantley2, Douglas Hammond3 and Sabah Kalamchi4

1University College London, UK

2University of California, USA

3University of Central Lancashire, UK

4Arizona School of Dentistry & Oral Health, USA

Corresponding Author

Received Date: July 19, 2019;  Published Date: July 26, 2019


Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the demographic profile of Native American patients with concomitant facial fractures and closed head injuries (CHIs) and to explore the validation of the craniofacial crumple zone.

Study Design:This was a retrospective, observational, case-control study of 2131 maxillofacial fractures from 2010 to 2014, of which 173 (8%) had concomitant CHIs.

Results:Of the study patients, 133 (77%) were males (mean age 40.6 years). Only 2.1% of the local population were Native American, but this group represented 24% of the patients with CHIs and sustained 4.6 times more (P value < .001) assault injuries and 2.6 times more concussion (P value < .001) compared with other groups. Other trauma comparisons were not significant. Of the 173 study patients, 86 (50%), had blood alcohol levels which exceeded 80 mg/100 mL compared with 93% of the Native Americans.

Conclusion:Native American patients had a highly significant predisposition to violence and road traffic accidents resulting in maxillofacial fractures and CHIs. The high blood alcohol levels found in this group also reflected longstanding sociologic problems. This study provides a useful model to investigate the relative ethnic/racial role of comminuted paranasal structures for the protection of the brain (i.e., the crumple zone). (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol 2018;125:520–525)

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