Open Access Review Article

Lifestyle Factors Contributing to HPA-Axis Activation and Chronic Illness in Americans

Dawn Elise Snipes*

PhD, LPC-MHSP, LMHC Executive Director,, USA

Corresponding Author

Received Date: October 26, 2019;  Published Date: October 31, 2019


More than 50% of Americans suffer from one or more chronic conditions with an estimated cost of $3.3 trillion annually including major depressive disorder (20%), generalized anxiety disorder (18.1%), low testosterone (25%) estrogen imbalances, diabetes (9.2%), hypertension, autoimmune disorders (23%), chronic pain, metabolic syndrome (30%),cardiovascular disease (44%) and hypothyroid (4.6%), all of which are associated with disturbances of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-Axis. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion 2019 [1-6].

Signup for Newsletter
Scroll to Top