A Simple Screening Test for Cancer
Received Date: March 16, 2021; Published Date: April 07, 2021
Comparative and correlative studies of the pathology and pathogenesis of colon cancer in animal models and human disease have resulted in conceptualization of ‘field effect” theory, and identification of a simple carbohydrate marker that is expressed early during carcinogenesis. This assimilated body of knowledge has resulted in development of a simple screening test for cancers of the lung, breast, colorectum, uterus, pancreas, and prostate. The marker galactose-N acetyl-galactosamine (Gal-GalNAc) is expressed in the cell surface and secreted glycoproteins of otherwise normal appearing tissues remote from cancer or precancerous lesions and is detected by enzymatic oxidation (10 minutes) followed by color reaction (1 minute). The high sensitivity, specificity, and cost-effectiveness of this point-of-care test makes it a great tool in our strategies for early detection, hence control of cancer. It would also reduce the number of unnecessary and expensive procedures, thereby decreasing the total national health-care cost to the societies and governments, globally.
Keywords: Screening test; Lung cancer; Breast cancer; Prostate cancer; Colon cancer; FOBT
Abbreviations: AOM: azoxymethane; FOBT: fecal occult blood test; Gal-GalNAc: galactose-N acetyl- galactosamine; GOS: galactose oxidase Schiff; MNNG: N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine; NCI: National Cancer Institute; T-Ag or TF-Ag: Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen